Distant miking- Mic placed more than 3 feet away. Leakage may occur!
Mic is generally within 2 feet. For drums a good rule of thumb to remember, 3 stacked fingers distance away.
picks up more room ambiance. This is used to record large ensembles within a minimum number of mic’s (less phase
Close minimizes leakage, room sound & may produce a more intimate, detailed performance (may also bring
out unwanted details). close is almost always used in live sound reinforcement.
*Sometimes both close and distant
When using 2 or more mics on a single source, at diffrent distances, phase cancellation will occur at some
freqs. If cancellation is objectionable...use only 1 mic. Minimize cancellation by lowering 1 mic’s level (or lower
level of monito channel). Delay all other tracks (or only close mic’s track) or, using a digital editor, advance
distant mic track. Somtimes 2 different mics are used at approximately the same distance to blend their normal qualities.
Miking- Stereo recording give us spatial info: where a sound source is in a room, the reflections of the room from the L &
R, or with close miking, the differance in the sound of one part of the instrument from another part. Mono tracks contain
no spatial info. Stereo recording is aslo quite different from doubling or double tracking (this is when we record a performer
on a track, then record them again on other tracks). Condeser is most often used for stereo miking
Coincident or XY:
2 cardioid mics placed one above the other with diaphrams as close as possibe. Mics axis are generally 100 to 110 degrees
apart. Close proximity of diaphrams minimizes cancellation that occurs when recording is heard in mono. Stereo image is not
as wide as with some other techniques.
Near Coincident or AB: 2 cardioid or omni mics placed approx. 6-8”
apart, at angle. Produces wider image, but with more cancellation than XY(in mono only).
Spaced pair- Cardioid or
omni mics placed several feet apart. Widest image, but more cancellation (mono only)
Baffled pair: Spaced pair with
absortive baffle between mics. Creates more isolation between L & R channels, some cancellation due to reflection from
baffle (in stereo)
Binaural: Mics placed in ears of dummy head, most closely simulates acoustic shadowing of human
head. Seldom used. Most effective when listening over headphones.
Blumiein: 2 bi-directional mics at 90 degree angle,
one above the other. Minimal cancellation (like XY). Picks up more ambience.
Decca-tree: Uses 3 mics in a triangle
comfigutation. Center mic is placed in front of the other two.
MS (mid-side): Uses a cardioid element or mic pointed
at sound source & bi-directional mic at a 90 degree angle. A special MS matrix device is used to create stereo from the
two mics. Creates the illusion of stereo width, but no differention between L & R in our side image. Used primarily when
concerned that mono summing of a stereo signal produces cancelation. With this method, only the sides are cancelled but center
ORTF: System developed for broadcast by France. All stereo miking for government run broadcast
must follow this standard- 2 cardioid mics 17cm apart at 110 degree angle.